By Mike Maciag

May 16, 2013 Governing - Nearly 150,000 people commute into Arlington County, Virginia, on a typical weekday from all points around the Washington, D.C., region for work at the Pentagon, government contracting offices and other employers.

The debate over whether such commuters should directly contribute to the tax base of the jurisdictions in which they work is as old as commuting itself. In Arlington County, as in most of the rest of the country, the vast majority of commuters don’t pay the county a dime in income or property taxes. At the same time, their presence generates a great deal of economic activity contributing to the county's budget.

Many of the nation’s urban centers similarly see their populations swell during the day with an influx of workers, creating a greater need for such things as additional public safety and maintenance of transportation infrastructure. In fact, out-of-town commuters account for the majority of the workforce in 32 counties with populations exceeding 65,000, according to the most recent census estimates.
 
Nowhere is this more prevalent than Arlington, where an estimated 77 percent of those working in the county live elsewhere. About 50,000 workers travel across the border from the much-larger neighboring Fairfax County. Tens of thousands more cross the river into Arlington each day from the District of Columbia or Maryland suburbs.
 
It’s no surprise, then, that getting all these people to work – both via the area’s heavily-trafficked roads and aging transit system – presents a challenge.
 
Still, Michelle Cowan, the county's director of management and finance, says the commuters are a net benefit to the county.
 
For one thing, they contribute sales and meals taxes. Property taxes account for 56 percent of the county’s total revenues, and the commercial properties supported by commuters make up about half the real estate tax base, providing the county with stability, Cowan said. “It makes a difference when you have major businesses that want to be in the county because we have quality services and our infrastructure is in good shape."
 
Some local governments have sought out additional revenue beyond property taxes. Houston, for instance, assesses a drainage fee based on the square footage of driveways and other impermeable surfaces, and spends that money on the city’s water and waste water infrastructure.
 
Arlington levies a special tax on commercial and industrial property to fund its transportation projects, such as road resurfacing and a planned streetcar project. But beyond that, the county’s options are limited since Virginia courts have ruled local governments there lack the authority to seek new types of revenue without state approval.
 
Absent these restrictions, Cowan said the county would look at studying other potential sources of revenue.

Although rare, some localities assess commuter taxes to recoup the costs of services they provide nonresidents. New York City eliminated its commuter tax in 1999, leaving cities like Philadelphia as one of the few remaining large municipalities levying a commuter tax on wages earned by nonresidents, currently set at about 3.5 percent.

Rep. Darrell Issa, chairman of the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, suggested last summer that Congress should explore the possibility of allowing the District of Columbia to tax commuters. D.C. officials have long called for such a tax, but the idea appears unlikely to gain traction anytime soon.
 
Workforces with the greatest share of commuters are, of course, found in the nation’s larger employment centers. An estimated 1.6 million people commute into New York County (Manhattan) each day, the most in terms of raw numbers, followed by Cook County, Ill., where about 500,000 people commute in from around the Chicago suburbs. Yet, as in Arlington County, these commuters don’t directly contribute any revenue to the city in the form of either property or income taxes.
 
Michael Pagano, dean of the College of Urban Planning and Public Affairs at the University of Illinois at Chicago, has argued this is why cities need to be able to adjust their tax structures to better link users of public services to costs, such as taxing of income by the place of employment.
 
Most states don’t allow municipalities to assess a local income tax, and in the few that do, only residents typically pay income taxes to the locality.
 
One of the few exceptions, Ohio, permits localities to collect a portion of income taxes from nonresident workers.
 
A bill introduced in the Ohio Senate last year would have cut this revenue, requiring big cities to grant commuters a tax credit of 10 percent or any tax liability greater than 2 percent of their taxable income. The threat of lost revenue prompted Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman to tell Columbus Business First that the fiscal impact of the legislation would "be worse than a tsunami."
 
Commuter taxes are becoming increasingly rare, driven in part by the greater clout suburban communities now enjoy in state legislatures, said Edward Zelinsky, a professor at Cardozo Law School who studies tax policy.
 
Zelinsky said he views commuters as a neutral or “slightly contributing factor” to most municipalities’ budgets. They don’t require more costly public education and human services expenses, and many of the larger institutions where they work, such as hospitals and universities, provide their own police units.
 
“The notion that commuters somehow harm the community or are a net drain isn’t very plausible,” he said.

Data

The following Census survey data estimates the number of nonresidents commuting to work in counties. Data includes figures for larger counties with populations exceeding 65,000:

 

           
County
State
Commuter % of Total Workforce
Total Working in County
Commuters Working in County
Residents Working in County
           
           
Arlington County Virginia 76.6 193,328 148,127 45,201
District of Columbia   71.0 805,581 572,256 233,325
New York County New York 69.5 2,282,808 1,586,551 696,257
York County Virginia 64.0 26,811 17,172 9,639
Clayton County Georgia 63.9 89,104 56,927 32,177
Wyandotte County Kansas 61.8 82,362 50,910 31,452
Boone County Kentucky 59.3 74,787 44,385 30,402
Fulton County Georgia 59.1 781,833 461,947 319,886
Denver County Colorado 58.9 457,494 269,536 187,958
Suffolk County Massachusetts 58.7 592,588 347,825 244,763
Howard County Maryland 58.4 141,575 82,683 58,892
Rockdale County Georgia 58.3 36,232 21,138 15,094
Somerset County New Jersey 57.4 177,189 101,681 75,508
Anderson County Tennessee 57.1 48,810 27,894 20,916
Platte County Missouri 57.1 45,370 25,915 19,455
Roanoke County Virginia 56.4 31,204 17,587 13,617
Ramsey County Minnesota 56.3 306,431 172,521 133,910
Hanover County Virginia 55.6 39,746 22,096 17,650
Madison County Mississippi 54.7 45,186 24,716 20,470
Eaton County Michigan 54.5 45,785 24,959 20,826
Kenton County Kentucky 54.2 65,507 35,498 30,009
Dallas County Iowa 53.9 27,128 14,611 12,517
Floyd County Indiana 53.6 33,641 18,030 15,611
Norfolk County Massachusetts 52.7 326,363 171,860 154,503
Adams County Colorado 51.6 165,438 85,354 80,084
DeKalb County Georgia 51.4 291,766 150,089 141,677
Essex County New Jersey 51.4 357,150 183,557 173,593
Yuba County California 50.9 20,202 10,279 9,923
Union County New Jersey 50.9 223,341 113,584 109,757
Durham County North Carolina 50.8 187,431 95,263 92,168
Fayette County Georgia 50.8 40,472 20,562 19,910
Warren County Ohio 50.3 83,265 41,893 41,372
Potter County Texas 50.1 78,597 39,347 39,250
DuPage County Illinois 49.9 541,037 270,083 270,954
Putnam County New York 49.8 28,328 14,118 14,210
Arapahoe County Colorado 49.7 279,480 138,854 140,626
Christian County Kentucky 49.6 46,426 23,022 23,404
Morris County New Jersey 49.2 271,841 133,620 138,221
Frederick County Virginia 49.1 30,597 15,031 15,566
Delaware County Ohio 49.0 70,513 34,575 35,938
Kendall County Illinois 48.9 27,944 13,671 14,273
Orange County North Carolina 48.9 68,343 33,405 34,938
Williamson County Tennessee 48.6 102,730 49,925 52,805
Hudson County New Jersey 48.5 267,934 129,829 138,105
Henrico County Virginia 48.3 163,416 78,942 84,474
Carver County Minnesota 48.2 36,866 17,772 19,094
Albemarle County Virginia 48.1 49,293 23,718 25,575
Forsyth County Georgia 48.0 64,876 31,131 33,745
Wood County Ohio 47.9 62,357 29,896 32,461
Scott County Minnesota 47.7 45,562 21,739 23,823
Hunterdon County New Jersey 47.7 58,778 28,022 30,756
Stafford County Virginia 47.4 43,107 20,428 22,679
Mercer County New Jersey 47.2 222,054 104,885 117,169
Fairfax County Virginia 47.1 564,686 265,989 298,697
Yolo County California 46.9 101,884 47,776 54,108
Prince George's County Maryland 46.8 326,152 152,773 173,379
Barrow County Georgia 46.5 15,654 7,273 8,381
Clark County Indiana 46.2 42,211 19,497 22,714
Douglas County Georgia 46.1 41,988 19,375 22,613
Cabell County West Virginia 46.0 52,228 24,037 28,191
Washington County Minnesota 45.7 83,510 38,191 45,319
Forrest County Mississippi 45.6 39,212 17,893 21,319
Salem County New Jersey 45.5 26,138 11,883 14,255
Albany County New York 45.5 221,416 100,653 120,763
Rockwall County Texas 45.4 30,358 13,777 16,581
Dauphin County Pennsylvania 45.2 176,418 79,675 96,743
Orleans Parish Louisiana 45.1 209,007 94,259 114,748
Kent County Rhode Island 45.0 74,204 33,367 40,837
Richmond County Georgia 44.9 121,931 54,753 67,178
Greene County Ohio 44.9 83,682 37,553 46,129
San Francisco County California 44.5 614,748 273,372 341,376
Hendricks County Indiana 44.4 50,145 22,284 27,861
Loudoun County Virginia 44.3 137,899 61,153 76,746
Waukesha County Wisconsin 44.3 225,671 100,020 125,651
Campbell County Kentucky 44.3 29,488 13,052 16,436
Montgomery County Pennsylvania 44.3 464,964 205,759 259,205
Sarpy County Nebraska 44.1 60,091 26,471 33,620
Middlesex County New Jersey 43.8 376,474 164,986 211,488
Geauga County Ohio 43.8 32,969 14,445 18,524
Comal County Texas 43.7 47,843 20,924 26,919
Baltimore County Maryland 43.5 339,314 147,760 191,554
Clay County Missouri 43.5 88,968 38,678 50,290
Sherburne County Minnesota 43.4 21,923 9,514 12,409
Hancock County Indiana 43.2 18,973 8,196 10,777
Clarke County Georgia 43.1 69,047 29,790 39,257
Hinds County Mississippi 43.1 127,755 55,060 72,695
Newton County Georgia 43.1 28,330 12,209 16,121
Bedford County Virginia 43.1 14,992 6,456 8,536
Passaic County New Jersey 42.9 176,223 75,541 100,682
Anoka County Minnesota 42.5 112,764 47,909 64,855
Bullitt County Kentucky 42.4 20,412 8,663 11,749
Sumter County Florida 42.4 22,518 9,550 12,968
Rankin County Mississippi 42.2 59,078 24,906 34,172
Hamilton County Indiana 42.1 118,893 50,107 68,786
Dakota County Minnesota 42.0 171,090 71,875 99,215
Ozaukee County Wisconsin 41.9 35,597 14,927 20,670
Creek County Oklahoma 41.9 19,878 8,322 11,556
Bergen County New Jersey 41.4 419,093 173,639 245,454
Cobb County Georgia 41.4 336,612 139,289 197,323
Prince William County Virginia 41.0 129,459 53,093 76,366
Fauquier County Virginia 41.0 23,512 9,642 13,870
Hennepin County Minnesota 41.0 830,570 340,165 490,405
Clinton County Michigan 40.8 18,588 7,578 11,010
Rockingham County New Hampshire 40.7 149,235 60,794 88,441
Jefferson County Colorado 40.7 226,755 92,270 134,485
Douglas County Colorado 40.6 103,877 42,160 61,717
Clackamas County Oregon 40.4 136,982 55,367 81,615
St. Louis County Missouri 40.3 563,403 227,280 336,123
Middlesex County Connecticut 40.1 69,312 27,793 41,519
San Mateo County California 40.1 348,592 139,720 208,872
Jackson County Missouri 39.8 371,961 148,195 223,766
Allegan County Michigan 39.7 37,829 15,011 22,818
Franklin County Washington 39.6 28,446 11,271 17,175
Anne Arundel County Maryland 39.6 273,871 108,461 165,410
Washington County Wisconsin 39.6 53,386 21,128 32,258
Hamilton County Ohio 39.5 481,135 190,200 290,935
Warren County New Jersey 39.5 38,216 15,098 23,118
Johnson County Indiana 39.5 44,336 17,511 26,825
Rensselaer County New York 39.5 58,636 23,158 35,478
Osceola County Florida 39.4 91,206 35,965 55,241
Schenectady County New York 39.4 67,830 26,715 41,115
Tolland County Connecticut 39.4 53,225 20,952 32,273
Dorchester County South Carolina 39.4 38,976 15,340 23,636
Ontario County New York 39.3 52,335 20,579 31,756
Bibb County Georgia 39.3 81,844 32,130 49,714
Newport County Rhode Island 39.2 46,164 18,119 28,045
Warren County New York 39.1 37,521 14,681 22,840
Rockingham County Virginia 39.1 33,721 13,191 20,530
Cumberland County Pennsylvania 39.1 129,770 50,687 79,083
Nash County North Carolina 39.0 42,580 16,626 25,954
Kane County Illinois 38.9 209,045 81,362 127,683
Middlesex County Massachusetts 38.8 862,535 334,488 528,047
Walton County Georgia 38.7 20,999 8,136 12,863
Oakland County Michigan 38.5 630,385 242,593 387,792
Camden County New Jersey 38.5 186,425 71,731 114,694
Burlington County New Jersey 38.5 205,505 79,039 126,466
Spotsylvania County Virginia 38.4 33,751 12,952 20,799
Wagoner County Oklahoma 38.4 10,634 4,080 6,554
Multnomah County Oregon 38.3 468,199 179,507 288,692
Bossier Parish Louisiana 38.3 54,556 20,886 33,670
Merrimack County New Hampshire 38.3 76,773 29,390 47,383
Grafton County New Hampshire 38.2 54,106 20,659 33,447
Davidson County Tennessee 38.1 419,530 159,975 259,555
Walker County Georgia 38.0 16,855 6,403 10,452
Ingham County Michigan 38.0 155,014 58,847 96,167
McCracken County Kentucky 38.0 38,932 14,775 24,157
Lexington County South Carolina 37.8 108,686 41,082 67,604
Wright County Minnesota 37.8 39,215 14,813 24,402
DeSoto County Mississippi 37.8 47,143 17,800 29,343
Shelby County Alabama 37.7 72,986 27,505 45,481
Madison County New York 37.6 24,832 9,349 15,483
Sullivan County Tennessee 37.6 69,994 26,336 43,658
Marion County Indiana 37.6 536,411 201,764 334,647
Gregg County Texas 37.6 75,107 28,234 46,873
Rogers County Oklahoma 37.4 25,220 9,420 15,800
Hays County Texas 37.3 60,869 22,684 38,185
Elmore County Alabama 37.2 17,442 6,489 10,953
Dougherty County Georgia 37.1 46,150 17,127 29,023
Outagamie County Wisconsin 37.1 99,146 36,788 62,358
Cabarrus County North Carolina 37.1 62,450 23,158 39,292
Will County Illinois 37.1 230,799 85,516 145,283
Winnebago County Wisconsin 36.9 92,071 33,999 58,072
Washington County Tennessee 36.9 62,627 23,090 39,537
Gloucester County New Jersey 36.8 101,217 37,204 64,013
Philadelphia County Pennsylvania 36.7 699,456 256,907 442,549
Washtenaw County Michigan 36.7 202,887 74,457 128,430
Cole County Missouri 36.7 49,270 18,069 31,201
Martin County Florida 36.6 62,160 22,762 39,398
Rock Island County Illinois 36.5 78,092 28,514 49,578
Marin County California 36.4 127,986 46,649 81,337
Troup County Georgia 36.4 35,843 13,058 22,785
Montgomery County Maryland 36.4 480,597 174,817 305,780
Wilson County Tennessee 36.4 42,280 15,376 26,904
Polk County Oregon 36.3 20,326 7,386 12,940
St. Croix County Wisconsin 36.3 31,839 11,548 20,291
Bronx County New York 36.2 370,702 134,310 236,392
Pottawattamie County Iowa 36.2 39,512 14,299 25,213
Catawba County North Carolina 36.1 82,760 29,879 52,881
Muscogee County Georgia 36.1 109,519 39,539 69,980
Medina County Ohio 36.1 60,414 21,787 38,627
Butler County Pennsylvania 36.0 88,499 31,864 56,635
Whitfield County Georgia 35.9 57,401 20,631 36,770
Lee County Mississippi 35.9 49,130 17,647 31,483
Queens County New York 35.9 677,638 243,172 434,466
Collin County Texas 35.9 362,483 129,992 232,491
Talladega County Alabama 35.8 27,712 9,925 17,787
Chesterfield County Virginia 35.8 115,732 41,416 74,316
Peoria County Illinois 35.7 106,344 37,984 68,360
Berkeley County South Carolina 35.7 53,238 18,999 34,239
Chester County Pennsylvania 35.5 236,410 84,025 152,385
Portage County Ohio 35.5 59,441 21,102 38,339
Washington County Rhode Island 35.5 54,025 19,157 34,868
Coryell County Texas 35.3 20,633 7,292 13,341
Columbia County Georgia 35.3 30,990 10,928 20,062
St. Clair County Alabama 35.2 18,364 6,473 11,891
Seminole County Florida 35.1 167,454 58,801 108,653
Northampton County Pennsylvania 35.0 115,236 40,308 74,928
Jefferson Parish Louisiana 35.0 197,309 68,964 128,345
Sebastian County Arkansas 34.9 70,801 24,742 46,059
Delaware County Pennsylvania 34.9 204,762 71,488 133,274
Henry County Georgia 34.8 52,044 18,131 33,913
Westchester County New York 34.8 419,531 146,057 273,474
Lehigh County Pennsylvania 34.8 166,441 57,843 108,598
Kaufman County Texas 34.7 26,328 9,128 17,200
Dallas County Texas 34.6 1,419,471 491,033 928,438
Clermont County Ohio 34.6 58,527 20,233 38,294
Augusta County Virginia 34.5 26,996 9,319 17,677
Gwinnett County Georgia 34.4 328,624 113,089 215,535
Midland County Michigan 34.2 38,092 13,020 25,072
Richland County South Carolina 34.1 214,996 73,378 141,618
Butler County Ohio 34.1 148,891 50,708 98,183
Charleston County South Carolina 34.0 218,823 74,456 144,367
Harrison County West Virginia 34.0 35,363 12,011 23,352
Jones County Mississippi 33.9 29,410 9,984 19,426
Washington County Maryland 33.9 67,476 22,876 44,600
Placer County California 33.9 141,848 48,073 93,775
Madison County Tennessee 33.8 52,677 17,787 34,890
Alameda County California 33.7 671,970 226,675 445,295
Guadalupe County Texas 33.7 38,145 12,853 25,292
Frederick County Maryland 33.7 99,437 33,501 65,936
Lake County Illinois 33.6 344,293 115,798 228,495
Bartholomew County Indiana 33.5 46,210 15,477 30,733
Nassau County New York 33.4 557,100 186,076 371,024
Washington County Pennsylvania 33.4 89,291 29,813 59,478
Maury County Tennessee 33.3 32,180 10,723 21,457
Charles County Maryland 33.3 38,796 12,917 25,879
Carroll County Georgia 33.3 39,917 13,278 26,639
Lincoln County North Carolina 33.2 23,151 7,697 15,454
Boulder County Colorado 33.2 179,746 59,755 119,991
Johnson County Kansas 33.2 306,532 101,712 204,820
Hall County Georgia 33.1 75,246 24,930 50,316
Limestone County Alabama 33.0 21,620 7,134 14,486
Davis County Utah 33.0 111,266 36,664 74,602
Ascension Parish Louisiana 32.9 35,235 11,583 23,652
Kings County New York 32.7 816,210 266,620 549,590
Montgomery County Alabama 32.6 135,224 44,120 91,104
Summit County Ohio 32.6 261,584 85,219 176,365
Fort Bend County Texas 32.5 157,358 51,196 106,162
Dodge County Wisconsin 32.5 36,646 11,921 24,725
Tazewell County Illinois 32.5 55,078 17,908 37,170
Robertson County Tennessee 32.4 22,132 7,180 14,952
Elkhart County Indiana 32.4 104,556 33,915 70,641
Pulaski County Arkansas 32.4 246,663 79,950 166,713
Marshall County Alabama 32.4 37,364 12,105 25,259
Marion County Ohio 32.3 24,817 8,027 16,790
Carroll County Maryland 32.3 55,846 18,017 37,829
Madera County California 32.2 42,302 13,620 28,682
Monongalia County West Virginia 32.0 55,335 17,734 37,601
Morgan County Alabama 32.0 51,045 16,341 34,704
Ottawa County Michigan 31.9 109,267 34,846 74,421
Carbon County Pennsylvania 31.9 15,948 5,081 10,867
Cecil County Maryland 31.8 31,402 9,991 21,411
Vanderburgh County Indiana 31.8 106,256 33,780 72,476
Wayne County Michigan 31.8 712,487 226,391 486,096
Strafford County New Hampshire 31.7 52,854 16,764 36,090
Hunt County Texas 31.7 34,330 10,866 23,464
Bucks County Pennsylvania 31.6 255,631 80,791 174,840
Macomb County Michigan 31.6 302,916 95,725 207,191
Parker County Texas 31.6 30,485 9,629 20,856
Liberty County Georgia 31.4 36,793 11,552 25,241
Washington County Oregon 31.4 259,063 81,320 177,743
Johnson County Texas 31.4 41,593 13,049 28,544
Erie County Ohio 31.3 34,465 10,802 23,663
Darlington County South Carolina 31.3 22,619 7,073 15,546
Cass County Missouri 31.2 25,029 7,810 17,219
Sandoval County New Mexico 31.1 36,500 11,356 25,144
Monmouth County New Jersey 31.0 264,787 82,112 182,675
Randall County Texas 30.8 35,253 10,866 24,387
Iberia Parish Louisiana 30.8 33,613 10,355 23,258
Mecklenburg County North Carolina 30.8 576,802 177,578 399,224
Lapeer County Michigan 30.7 23,499 7,221 16,278
Livingston County Michigan 30.6 57,517 17,612 39,905
Howard County Indiana 30.6 39,481 12,072 27,409
Bartow County Georgia 30.4 32,294 9,820 22,474
Harrison County Texas 30.4 24,680 7,501 17,179
Calhoun County Michigan 30.4 59,831 18,169 41,662
Northumberland County Pennsylvania 30.3 29,904 9,065 20,839
Orange County Florida 30.3 686,854 208,050 478,804
Hancock County Ohio 30.3 42,110 12,749 29,361
Monroe County Pennsylvania 30.2 62,192 18,802 43,390
Miami County Ohio 30.2 40,914 12,364 28,550
McHenry County Illinois 30.2 104,854 31,683 73,171
Wilson County North Carolina 30.2 38,733 11,703 27,030
Livingston County New York 30.1 22,579 6,805 15,774
Forsyth County North Carolina 30.1 179,669 54,148 125,521
Bowie County Texas 30.1 41,185 12,397 28,788
Providence County Rhode Island 30.0 295,360 88,717 206,643
Fairfield County Ohio 29.9 42,272 12,642 29,630
Morgan County Indiana 29.9 16,085 4,805 11,280
Houston County Alabama 29.8 52,718 15,728 36,990
Laurens County South Carolina 29.8 21,261 6,333 14,928
Hampshire County Massachusetts 29.8 74,509 22,187 52,322
Oklahoma County Oklahoma 29.7 439,527 130,663 308,864
Lonoke County Arkansas 29.7 15,419 4,582 10,837
Lafayette Parish Louisiana 29.7 129,450 38,455 90,995
Eau Claire County Wisconsin 29.6 60,974 18,062 42,912
Canadian County Oklahoma 29.4 30,470 8,970 21,500
Jasper County Missouri 29.4 59,093 17,352 41,741
Wood County Wisconsin 29.3 40,724 11,952 28,772
Walker County Texas 29.3 24,557 7,203 17,354
Guilford County North Carolina 29.3 273,499 80,183 193,316
Iredell County North Carolina 29.3 63,667 18,648 45,019
Harford County Maryland 29.3 91,807 26,868 64,939
Fayette County Kentucky 29.1 183,705 53,413 130,292
Kenosha County Wisconsin 29.0 57,783 16,776 41,007
East Baton Rouge Parish Louisiana 29.0 264,326 76,728 187,598
Jefferson County Texas 29.0 130,583 37,872 92,711
Aiken County South Carolina 28.9 61,817 17,883 43,934
Jefferson County Wisconsin 28.9 32,089 9,281 22,808
Porter County Indiana 28.8 60,821 17,525 43,296
Plymouth County Massachusetts 28.8 182,650 52,619 130,031
Hamilton County Tennessee 28.8 191,846 55,249 136,597
St. Landry Parish Louisiana 28.7 24,355 6,988 17,367
Christian County Missouri 28.6 18,337 5,247 13,090
Galveston County Texas 28.6 107,726 30,809 76,917
Denton County Texas 28.6 228,331 65,268 163,063
Saginaw County Michigan 28.5 87,476 24,971 62,505
St. Johns County Florida 28.5 69,956 19,969 49,987
Scott County Iowa 28.5 85,078 24,238 60,840
Lancaster County South Carolina 28.5 25,494 7,262 18,232
Montgomery County Virginia 28.5 49,615 14,131 35,484
Madison County Illinois 28.5 105,251 29,959 75,292
Hartford County Connecticut 28.5 497,881 141,710 356,171
Williamson County Texas 28.4 146,976 41,756 105,220
Jefferson County Alabama 28.4 344,781 97,805 246,976
Terrebonne Parish Louisiana 28.3 55,863 15,806 40,057
Orange County Texas 28.3 26,183 7,405 18,778
Buchanan County Missouri 28.2 51,154 14,445 36,709
Walworth County Wisconsin 28.1 40,502 11,400 29,102
Cuyahoga County Ohio 28.1 687,397 193,344 494,053
Sussex County New Jersey 28.1 40,740 11,442 29,298
Montgomery County Ohio 28.1 242,742 68,135 174,607
Pike County Kentucky 28.1 23,593 6,619 16,974
Wayne County New York 28.0 29,806 8,340 21,466
Saratoga County New York 27.9 81,183 22,679 58,504
Windham County Connecticut 27.9 42,137 11,767 30,370
San Patricio County Texas 27.9 16,306 4,547 11,759
Kanawha County West Virginia 27.9 101,324 28,237 73,087
Florence County South Carolina 27.8 66,221 18,415 47,806
St. Clair County Illinois 27.7 107,197 29,684 77,513
Hillsborough County New Hampshire 27.7 186,031 51,487 134,544
Van Buren County Michigan 27.7 24,227 6,704 17,523
Allen County Ohio 27.7 50,350 13,925 36,425
Lebanon County Pennsylvania 27.6 53,072 14,657 38,415
Douglas County Nebraska 27.5 315,354 86,873 228,481
St. Charles County Missouri 27.5 130,753 36,018 94,735
Wood County West Virginia 27.5 38,380 10,544 27,836
Bradley County Tennessee 27.5 40,966 11,254 29,712
Muskogee County Oklahoma 27.4 27,725 7,608 20,117
Ross County Ohio 27.3 28,805 7,866 20,939
Napa County California 27.3 68,889 18,789 50,100
Armstrong County Pennsylvania 27.3 20,186 5,505 14,681
Stearns County Minnesota 27.3 86,112 23,482 62,630
Monroe County Michigan 27.2 41,501 11,291 30,210
Union County North Carolina 27.2 61,139 16,632 44,507
Hardin County Kentucky 27.1 54,846 14,883 39,963
Jackson County Mississippi 27.1 52,507 14,206 38,301
Mahoning County Ohio 27.0 100,339 27,095 73,244
Bristol County Massachusetts 27.0 209,380 56,505 152,875
Blount County Tennessee 26.9 45,624 12,280 33,344
Surry County North Carolina 26.8 30,884 8,274 22,610
Isabella County Michigan 26.7 33,681 9,005 24,676
Essex County Massachusetts 26.7 308,422 82,247 226,175
Grand Traverse County Michigan 26.6 50,052 13,338 36,714
Caddo Parish Louisiana 26.6 125,955 33,531 92,424
Trumbull County Ohio 26.6 78,247 20,782 57,465
Lafourche Parish Louisiana 26.5 35,930 9,526 26,404
Lake County Ohio 26.5 91,478 24,242 67,236
Nassau County Florida 26.5 17,010 4,504 12,506
Licking County Ohio 26.4 57,811 15,277 42,534
Lake County Indiana 26.4 195,092 51,475 143,617
Benton County Washington 26.3 82,395 21,660 60,735
Sutter County California 26.3 27,206 7,147 20,059
Cattaraugus County New York 26.2 31,581 8,284 23,297
Columbia County Pennsylvania 26.2 28,559 7,490 21,069
Columbia County Florida 26.2 22,716 5,943 16,773
Jefferson County Kentucky 26.1 417,674 109,214 308,460
Greenville County South Carolina 26.1 237,004 61,925 175,079
Rockland County New York 26.1 107,918 28,160 79,758
Lucas County Ohio 26.1 203,602 53,056 150,546
Tompkins County New York 25.9 59,233 15,370 43,863
Fairfield County Connecticut 25.8 461,424 119,193 342,231
Gaston County North Carolina 25.8 70,265 18,148 52,117
Leavenworth County Kansas 25.8 27,426 7,082 20,344
Linn County Oregon 25.8 40,760 10,525 30,235
Davidson County North Carolina 25.8 48,348 12,471 35,877
Greene County Missouri 25.7 160,437 41,268 119,169
Houston County Georgia 25.7 65,524 16,850 48,674
Johnson County Iowa 25.7 85,330 21,927 63,403
Milwaukee County Wisconsin 25.7 464,122 119,197 344,925
Weber County Utah 25.6 95,098 24,392 70,706
Cumberland County Maine 25.6 174,845 44,771 130,074
York County South Carolina 25.6 82,512 21,107 61,405
Franklin County Ohio 25.5 685,875 175,103 510,772
Montgomery County Texas 25.5 160,073 40,826 119,247
Rockingham County North Carolina 25.5 30,370 7,740 22,630
New Hanover County North Carolina 25.5 110,208 28,071 82,137
Adams County Pennsylvania 25.4 34,419 8,752 25,667
Weld County Colorado 25.4 98,671 25,057 73,614
Bay County Michigan 25.4 37,065 9,405 27,660
Harnett County North Carolina 25.3 27,821 7,046 20,775
Williamson County Illinois 25.3 26,267 6,651 19,616
Wayne County Ohio 25.3 48,549 12,274 36,275
Kosciusko County Indiana 25.3 36,413 9,201 27,212
Chelan County Washington 25.2 38,006 9,583 28,423
Franklin County Massachusetts 25.2 31,215 7,858 23,357
Marion County Oregon 25.2 131,187 32,995 98,192
Henderson County North Carolina 25.1 39,705 9,977 29,728
Clay County Florida 25.1 43,616 10,929 32,687
Harrison County Mississippi 25.0 102,669 25,687 76,982
Sevier County Tennessee 25.0 40,575 10,138 30,437
Travis County Texas 24.9 643,295 160,351 482,944
Calvert County Maryland 24.9 25,283 6,299 18,984
Cumberland County New Jersey 24.9 59,772 14,878 44,894
Johnston County North Carolina 24.9 48,320 12,024 36,296
Cape Girardeau County Missouri 24.9 42,077 10,470 31,607
Vigo County Indiana 24.9 55,486 13,803 41,683
Minnehaha County South Dakota 24.9 111,234 27,671 83,563
Knox County Tennessee 24.9 238,249 59,265 178,984
Putnam County Tennessee 24.8 33,123 8,223 24,900
Skagit County Washington 24.7 53,781 13,309 40,472
Litchfield County Connecticut 24.6 70,669 17,411 53,258
Glynn County Georgia 24.6 42,473 10,463 32,010
Kennebec County Maine 24.6 61,050 15,035 46,015
Liberty County Texas 24.6 16,073 3,953 12,120
Moore County North Carolina 24.5 33,854 8,302 25,552
Rowan County North Carolina 24.5 48,826 11,945 36,881
Benton County Oregon 24.4 36,642 8,958 27,684
Pickens County South Carolina 24.4 37,545 9,172 28,373
Jefferson County Missouri 24.4 50,284 12,245 38,039
Racine County Wisconsin 24.3 73,779 17,941 55,838
Chatham County Georgia 24.3 139,769 33,964 105,805
Belmont County Ohio 24.3 21,385 5,186 16,199
DeKalb County Illinois 24.2 41,234 9,988 31,246
Columbiana County Ohio 24.2 30,504 7,373 23,131
Randolph County North Carolina 24.2 46,506 11,239 35,267
Calhoun County Alabama 24.1 50,151 12,107 38,044
Brazoria County Texas 24.0 98,329 23,598 74,731
Paulding County Georgia 23.9 28,117 6,723 21,394
Clearfield County Pennsylvania 23.9 33,087 7,900 25,187
El Dorado County California 23.9 52,928 12,636 40,292
Cleveland County North Carolina 23.8 34,947 8,333 26,614
Polk County Iowa 23.7 262,846 62,378 200,468
Allegany County Maryland 23.7 32,382 7,681 24,701
Madison County Kentucky 23.7 34,567 8,196 26,371
Sumner County Tennessee 23.6 52,508 12,416 40,092
Floyd County Georgia 23.6 40,094 9,479 30,615
Kent County Michigan 23.6 333,617 78,853 254,764
Tulsa County Oklahoma 23.6 350,362 82,512 267,850
Delaware County Indiana 23.5 49,307 11,598 37,709
Shiawassee County Michigan 23.5 19,584 4,603 14,981
San Bernardino County California 23.5 699,193 164,093 535,100
Alamance County North Carolina 23.4 60,461 14,169 46,292
Androscoggin County Maine 23.4 47,454 11,119 36,335
Butler County Kansas 23.4 19,538 4,575 14,963
Contra Costa County California 23.4 362,190 84,713 277,477
Madison County Alabama 23.4 194,613 45,487 149,126
Warren County Kentucky 23.3 63,102 14,729 48,373
Anderson County South Carolina 23.3 63,852 14,876 48,976
Lake County Florida 23.3 97,928 22,802 75,126
Brunswick County North Carolina 23.2 30,835 7,167 23,668
Mercer County Pennsylvania 23.2 48,585 11,260 37,325
Cherokee County Georgia 23.1 62,804 14,531 48,273
Ellis County Texas 23.1 45,375 10,485 34,890
Craven County North Carolina 23.1 48,927 11,290 37,637
Cass County North Dakota 23.1 103,160 23,785 79,375
New Castle County Delaware 23.1 262,123 60,423 201,700
Muskingum County Ohio 23.1 36,238 8,353 27,885
Jefferson County Arkansas 23.0 31,496 7,254 24,242
Coweta County Georgia 23.0 37,141 8,541 28,600
Wake County North Carolina 22.9 482,572 110,495 372,077
Monroe County Indiana 22.9 75,903 17,373 58,530
LaPorte County Indiana 22.8 40,442 9,239 31,203
Madison County Indiana 22.8 42,155 9,628 32,527
Tangipahoa Parish Louisiana 22.8 42,685 9,738 32,947
Woodbury County Iowa 22.8 50,308 11,455 38,853
Orange County New York 22.7 146,532 33,328 113,204
Bonneville County Idaho 22.7 52,834 12,008 40,826
Cullman County Alabama 22.7 28,058 6,373 21,685
Spartanburg County South Carolina 22.7 124,709 28,323 96,386
Burke County North Carolina 22.7 29,594 6,721 22,873
Santa Clara County California 22.7 938,013 212,962 725,051
Greenwood County South Carolina 22.7 28,181 6,383 21,798
Rutherford County Tennessee 22.6 105,607 23,870 81,737
Sarasota County Florida 22.6 160,602 36,273 124,329
Jefferson County Ohio 22.6 24,000 5,416 18,584
Solano County California 22.6 138,651 31,287 107,364
Orangeburg County South Carolina 22.5 32,752 7,377 25,375
Lawrence County Pennsylvania 22.4 33,533 7,528 26,005
Kalamazoo County Michigan 22.4 119,132 26,709 92,423
Cumberland County North Carolina 22.4 163,302 36,563 126,739
Lackawanna County Pennsylvania 22.4 100,523 22,485 78,038
Lowndes County Georgia 22.4 50,100 11,200 38,900
Fond du Lac County Wisconsin 22.3 47,436 10,582 36,854
Olmsted County Minnesota 22.2 93,909 20,887 73,022
Pottawatomie County Oklahoma 22.2 24,608 5,458 19,150
Dutchess County New York 22.2 116,018 25,720 90,298
Indiana County Pennsylvania 22.2 35,277 7,820 27,457
Atlantic County New Jersey 22.1 126,914 28,038 98,876
Duval County Florida 22.1 477,949 105,498 372,451
Oconee County South Carolina 22.1 25,945 5,722 20,223
Caldwell County North Carolina 22.0 27,331 6,022 21,309
Valencia County New Mexico 22.0 15,729 3,465 12,264
Chemung County New York 22.0 38,728 8,529 30,199
Westmoreland County Pennsylvania 22.0 138,507 30,500 108,007
Midland County Texas 22.0 73,793 16,246 57,547
Scioto County Ohio 21.9 26,261 5,764 20,497
Cleveland County Oklahoma 21.9 87,020 19,063 67,957
Jackson County Michigan 21.9 56,620 12,375 44,245
Allegheny County Pennsylvania 21.8 670,645 146,476 524,169
Steuben County New York 21.8 41,652 9,064 32,588
Yamhill County Oregon 21.7 37,044 8,055 28,989
New Haven County Connecticut 21.7 380,678 82,643 298,035
Pinal County Arizona 21.7 80,111 17,375 62,736
Brown County Wisconsin 21.6 144,903 31,333 113,570
Wicomico County Maryland 21.6 40,747 8,806 31,941
Tarrant County Texas 21.6 849,778 183,190 666,588
Beaver County Pennsylvania 21.5 55,796 12,020 43,776
St. Francois County Missouri 21.5 23,578 5,078 18,500
New London County Connecticut 21.5 135,627 29,207 106,420
Livingston Parish Louisiana 21.5 27,893 6,005 21,888
Pasco County Florida 21.5 116,602 25,089 91,513
Riley County Kansas 21.5 37,884 8,146 29,738
La Crosse County Wisconsin 21.5 70,280 15,086 55,194
Stark County Ohio 21.5 161,296 34,622 126,674
Lauderdale County Mississippi 21.3 37,728 8,050 29,678
Story County Iowa 21.3 49,468 10,527 38,941
Lee County Alabama 21.2 51,881 11,020 40,861
LaSalle County Illinois 21.2 46,873 9,956 36,917
Carteret County North Carolina 21.2 26,491 5,619 20,872
Wayne County Indiana 21.1 28,379 6,001 22,378
Dubuque County Iowa 21.1 57,726 12,152 45,574
Rutherford County North Carolina 21.0 21,820 4,583 17,237
Macon County Illinois 20.9 53,296 11,154 42,142
St. Tammany Parish Louisiana 20.9 83,860 17,535 66,325
Benton County Arkansas 20.9 107,352 22,430 84,922
Blair County Pennsylvania 20.8 62,638 13,018 49,620
Kings County California 20.6 54,413 11,196 43,217
St. Joseph County Indiana 20.6 126,189 25,955 100,234
Lorain County Ohio 20.6 105,899 21,771 84,128
Chittenden County Vermont 20.5 99,404 20,419 78,985
Shelby County Tennessee 20.5 485,272 99,618 385,654
Orange County California 20.5 1,493,898 306,181 1,187,717
Hillsborough County Florida 20.5 623,027 127,582 495,445
St. Mary's County Maryland 20.5 52,623 10,764 41,859
Cayuga County New York 20.4 29,012 5,929 23,083
Saline County Arkansas 20.3 24,780 5,042 19,738
Canyon County Idaho 20.3 56,428 11,471 44,957
Franklin County Missouri 20.3 34,797 7,073 27,724
Franklin County Pennsylvania 20.3 58,587 11,894 46,693
Craighead County Arkansas 20.3 44,990 9,118 35,872
Smith County Texas 20.2 96,517 19,525 76,992
Cape May County New Jersey 20.1 40,304 8,107 32,197
Greene County Tennessee 20.1 26,939 5,412 21,527
Harris County Texas 20.0 2,199,428 440,629 1,758,799
Robeson County North Carolina 20.0 42,702 8,553 34,149
Berkeley County West Virginia 20.0 27,443 5,496 21,947
Pierce County Washington 20.0 315,147 62,930 252,217
Richland County Ohio 19.9 50,921 10,124 40,797
Winnebago County Illinois 19.9 135,832 26,994 108,838
Lewis County Washington 19.9 25,836 5,129 20,707
King County Washington 19.8 1,149,694 227,425 922,269
Oneida County New York 19.7 107,246 21,135 86,111
Cook County Illinois 19.6 2,523,396 495,237 2,028,159
Sullivan County New York 19.5 24,778 4,842 19,936
York County Pennsylvania 19.5 178,000 34,771 143,229
Richmond County New York 19.5 125,567 24,450 101,117
Henderson County Texas 19.4 21,867 4,249 17,618
Putnam County Florida 19.4 18,985 3,686 15,299
Portage County Wisconsin 19.4 33,909 6,582 27,327
Linn County Iowa 19.4 123,852 24,025 99,827
Grant County Indiana 19.3 27,987 5,415 22,572
Walker County Alabama 19.3 18,596 3,596 15,000
Buncombe County North Carolina 19.3 119,952 23,172 96,780
Onondaga County New York 19.3 242,219 46,702 195,517
Somerset County Pennsylvania 19.3 28,363 5,467 22,896
Santa Fe County New Mexico 19.3 76,960 14,816 62,144
Schuylkill County Pennsylvania 19.2 50,839 9,768 41,071
Lycoming County Pennsylvania 19.2 56,592 10,856 45,736
Kankakee County Illinois 19.1 42,551 8,136 34,415
Muskegon County Michigan 19.1 57,938 11,047 46,891
Grand Forks County North Dakota 19.0 40,678 7,740 32,938
Tippecanoe County Indiana 19.0 93,006 17,676 75,330
Shawnee County Kansas 19.0 94,709 17,972 76,737
Black Hawk County Iowa 19.0 74,710 14,159 60,551
Sacramento County California 18.9 593,758 112,245 481,513
White County Arkansas 18.9 29,477 5,570 23,907
Montgomery County Tennessee 18.8 59,725 11,240 48,485
Faulkner County Arkansas 18.8 44,773 8,407 36,366
Cambria County Pennsylvania 18.8 54,493 10,228 44,265
Washington County Arkansas 18.7 101,569 19,031 82,538
Sangamon County Illinois 18.6 109,395 20,373 89,022
Hampden County Massachusetts 18.6 195,724 36,380 159,344
Salt Lake County Utah 18.6 569,291 105,806 463,485
Raleigh County West Virginia 18.6 32,005 5,939 26,066
Santa Rosa County Florida 18.5 39,494 7,310 32,184
Okaloosa County Florida 18.5 90,245 16,687 73,558
Charlotte County Florida 18.5 50,759 9,367 41,392
Snohomish County Washington 18.4 273,183 50,146 223,037
Niagara County New York 18.3 71,418 13,100 58,318
Kent County Delaware 18.3 63,784 11,686 52,098
Indian River County Florida 18.3 52,109 9,525 42,584
Sumter County South Carolina 18.3 42,818 7,816 35,002
Leon County Florida 18.2 155,927 28,439 127,488
Escambia County Florida 18.2 149,008 27,132 121,876
Genesee County Michigan 18.1 142,262 25,750 116,512
Douglas County Kansas 18.1 54,529 9,847 44,682
Thurston County Washington 18.0 104,065 18,758 85,307
Pitt County North Carolina 17.9 75,734 13,588 62,146
Tuscarawas County Ohio 17.9 37,318 6,690 30,628
Broome County New York 17.9 91,441 16,378 75,063
Victoria County Texas 17.9 40,376 7,215 33,161
DeKalb County Alabama 17.9 23,177 4,140 19,037
Cowlitz County Washington 17.8 34,036 6,067 27,969
Rapides Parish Louisiana 17.8 54,839 9,762 45,077
Clark County Ohio 17.8 44,149 7,856 36,293
Ector County Texas 17.7 61,662 10,924 50,738
Bastrop County Texas 17.7 17,635 3,119 14,516
San Joaquin County California 17.7 229,304 40,535 188,769
Manatee County Florida 17.6 111,154 19,618 91,536
Pennington County South Dakota 17.6 53,420 9,425 43,995
Berrien County Michigan 17.6 62,693 11,042 51,651
Bulloch County Georgia 17.6 29,638 5,207 24,431
Worcester County Massachusetts 17.5 319,730 56,013 263,717
Cheshire County New Hampshire 17.5 35,113 6,151 28,962
Crawford County Pennsylvania 17.3 33,892 5,878 28,014
Hernando County Florida 17.3 38,967 6,755 32,212
Payne County Oklahoma 17.2 38,924 6,686 32,238
Etowah County Alabama 17.2 33,094 5,679 27,415
Stanislaus County California 17.1 177,914 30,507 147,407
Burleigh County North Dakota 17.1 48,122 8,247 39,875
Allen County Indiana 17.1 172,448 29,507 142,941
Sussex County Delaware 17.1 81,826 13,993 67,833
Marathon County Wisconsin 17.1 68,611 11,721 56,890
Dane County Wisconsin 17.1 309,336 52,836 256,500
Wilkes County North Carolina 17.1 21,948 3,746 18,202
Ulster County New York 17.0 65,861 11,227 54,634
Bell County Texas 17.0 147,946 25,217 122,729
Ouachita Parish Louisiana 17.0 70,311 11,919 58,392
St. Lucie County Florida 16.9 80,676 13,665 67,011
Berks County Pennsylvania 16.8 171,194 28,775 142,419
Rock County Wisconsin 16.8 58,984 9,908 49,076
Fayette County Pennsylvania 16.8 40,400 6,777 33,623
Lenawee County Michigan 16.7 32,758 5,484 27,274
St. Louis County Minnesota 16.7 98,638 16,456 82,182
Alachua County Florida 16.7 125,462 20,916 104,546
Grayson County Texas 16.7 45,529 7,585 37,944
York County Maine 16.6 69,389 11,487 57,902
Nacogdoches County Texas 16.5 25,093 4,130 20,963
Adams County Illinois 16.3 35,682 5,809 29,873
Luzerne County Pennsylvania 16.2 140,776 22,830 117,946
Centre County Pennsylvania 16.2 80,047 12,979 67,068
Pinellas County Florida 16.0 404,173 64,803 339,370
Broward County Florida 16.0 757,544 120,986 636,558
Boone County Missouri 15.9 88,735 14,094 74,641
Lauderdale County Alabama 15.8 35,869 5,684 30,185
Tuscaloosa County Alabama 15.8 85,384 13,449 71,935
Umatilla County Oregon 15.7 32,468 5,113 27,355
Daviess County Kentucky 15.7 44,038 6,933 37,105
Sheboygan County Wisconsin 15.5 57,290 8,853 48,437
Collier County Florida 15.2 137,722 20,918 116,804
Mobile County Alabama 15.2 182,646 27,671 154,975
Manitowoc County Wisconsin 15.1 37,610 5,664 31,946
Champaign County Illinois 15.0 103,662 15,532 88,130
Clark County Washington 14.8 139,425 20,665 118,760
Oswego County New York 14.8 35,412 5,241 30,171
Ocean County New Jersey 14.7 154,308 22,695 131,613
Flagler County Florida 14.5 20,845 3,018 17,827
Monroe County New York 14.5 374,716 54,160 320,556
Wayne County North Carolina 14.4 49,786 7,182 42,604
Merced County California 14.4 78,196 11,275 66,921
Ada County Idaho 14.4 194,555 28,041 166,514
Citrus County Florida 14.4 37,070 5,333 31,737
Monroe County Florida 14.4 41,311 5,933 35,378
Bernalillo County New Mexico 14.3 324,562 46,251 278,311
Taylor County Texas 14.2 63,167 8,991 54,176
Palm Beach County Florida 14.2 576,176 81,792 494,384
Riverside County California 14.2 673,110 95,528 577,582
Otero County New Mexico 14.0 25,057 3,519 21,538
Volusia County Florida 13.9 171,510 23,802 147,708
Twin Falls County Idaho 13.8 33,137 4,582 28,555
Santa Cruz County California 13.8 113,674 15,644 98,030
Nevada County California 13.7 34,988 4,778 30,210
Garland County Arkansas 13.5 40,316 5,429 34,887
Vermilion County Illinois 13.4 30,112 4,034 26,078
Ashtabula County Ohio 13.4 32,546 4,355 28,191
McLean County Illinois 13.4 89,062 11,907 77,155
Calcasieu Parish Louisiana 13.4 85,691 11,453 74,238
St. Clair County Michigan 13.2 48,170 6,355 41,815
Nueces County Texas 13.0 165,560 21,586 143,974
Marion County Florida 13.0 106,297 13,831 92,466
Grays Harbor County Washington 13.0 24,205 3,144 21,061
Suffolk County New York 12.9 621,227 80,181 541,046
Santa Barbara County California 12.9 210,281 27,049 183,232
Miami-Dade County Florida 12.8 1,183,825 152,088 1,031,737
Kootenai County Idaho 12.8 54,769 7,027 47,742
Missoula County Montana 12.7 60,605 7,699 52,906
Erie County New York 12.6 449,968 56,612 393,356
Penobscot County Maine 12.5 71,553 8,936 62,617
Wichita County Texas 12.3 63,082 7,782 55,300
Larimer County Colorado 12.2 143,628 17,539 126,089
Highlands County Florida 12.2 30,836 3,759 27,077
Island County Washington 12.1 26,850 3,249 23,601
Berkshire County Massachusetts 11.9 62,693 7,457 55,236
Jefferson County New York 11.8 56,390 6,653 49,737
Angelina County Texas 11.8 36,387 4,279 32,108
Brazos County Texas 11.7 93,639 10,950 82,689
Polk County Florida 11.7 197,695 23,089 174,606
Ventura County California 11.7 334,017 38,938 295,079
Lancaster County Pennsylvania 11.6 233,116 27,025 206,091
Comanche County Oklahoma 11.3 63,354 7,130 56,224
Grant County Washington 11.1 38,095 4,218 33,877
Chautauqua County New York 11.1 56,890 6,299 50,591
Sedgwick County Kansas 11.0 253,889 28,052 225,837
Beaufort County South Carolina 11.0 73,282 8,076 65,206
Kitsap County Washington 10.9 109,053 11,908 97,145
Bexar County Texas 10.7 824,132 88,492 735,640
Baldwin County Alabama 10.7 65,405 7,002 58,403
McLennan County Texas 10.7 108,861 11,653 97,208
Los Angeles County California 10.7 4,461,072 476,445 3,984,627
Barnstable County Massachusetts 10.7 96,048 10,236 85,812
Do±a Ana County New Mexico 10.7 78,422 8,353 70,069
Tulare County California 10.6 150,013 15,920 134,093
Shasta County California 10.6 68,434 7,261 61,173
Onslow County North Carolina 10.2 91,108 9,263 81,845
Navajo County Arizona 10.1 32,923 3,335 29,588
Lancaster County Nebraska 9.8 160,044 15,722 144,322
Monterey County California 9.7 167,791 16,275 151,516
Fresno County California 9.5 343,967 32,740 311,227
San Luis Obispo County California 9.3 116,063 10,801 105,262
Apache County Arizona 9.3 17,347 1,606 15,741
Utah County Utah 9.2 200,931 18,419 182,512
Pueblo County Colorado 8.9 65,634 5,832 59,802
Anchorage Municipality Alaska 8.8 164,240 14,446 149,794
Lee County Florida 8.7 225,037 19,650 205,387
Bannock County Idaho 8.6 34,192 2,950 31,242
McKinley County New Mexico 8.6 21,843 1,882 19,961
Mendocino County California 8.5 36,830 3,134 33,696
Spokane County Washington 8.5 213,169 18,128 195,041
Laramie County Wyoming 8.4 50,459 4,240 46,219
Sonoma County California 8.2 206,003 16,993 189,010
Kern County California 8.2 314,278 25,631 288,647
Erie County Pennsylvania 7.9 132,728 10,442 122,286
Lea County New Mexico 7.7 27,321 2,097 25,224
Washoe County Nevada 7.5 195,318 14,711 180,607
Josephine County Oregon 7.5 25,395 1,900 23,495
Butte County California 7.5 82,123 6,130 75,993
Washington County Utah 7.4 52,485 3,905 48,580
San Juan County New Mexico 7.2 54,437 3,918 50,519
Clinton County New York 7.1 35,526 2,539 32,987
Lake County California 7.1 19,816 1,414 18,402
Douglas County Oregon 7.0 38,738 2,730 36,008
Horry County South Carolina 6.9 124,163 8,532 115,631
Natrona County Wyoming 6.8 38,377 2,624 35,753
Coconino County Arizona 6.8 62,677 4,279 58,398
Yellowstone County Montana 6.8 78,738 5,374 73,364
Cache County Utah 6.8 51,099 3,481 47,618
Lubbock County Texas 6.8 141,205 9,542 131,663
Cameron County Texas 6.6 137,924 9,152 128,772
Cochise County Arizona 6.6 48,336 3,203 45,133
Deschutes County Oregon 6.5 68,732 4,499 64,233
Tom Green County Texas 6.3 53,275 3,337 49,938
St. Lawrence County New York 6.1 41,411 2,529 38,882
Bay County Florida 6.1 79,052 4,808 74,244
Lane County Oregon 5.8 149,034 8,669 140,365
Yavapai County Arizona 5.7 75,715 4,323 71,392
El Paso County Colorado 5.7 301,000 17,139 283,861
Gallatin County Montana 5.4 48,768 2,610 46,158
Imperial County California 5.3 57,071 3,045 54,026
El Paso County Texas 5.1 331,669 16,952 314,717
Yakima County Washington 5.0 95,737 4,811 90,926
Whatcom County Washington 4.9 91,535 4,502 87,033
San Diego County California 4.9 1,446,353 70,814 1,375,539
Mesa County Colorado 4.8 64,668 3,094 61,574
Marquette County Michigan 4.6 29,368 1,356 28,012
Mohave County Arizona 4.6 56,135 2,590 53,545
Brevard County Florida 4.2 211,454 8,909 202,545
Maricopa County Arizona 4.0 1,724,896 69,581 1,655,315
Cascade County Montana 4.0 38,723 1,535 37,188
Webb County Texas 3.8 94,907 3,616 91,291
Jackson County Oregon 3.7 80,328 2,975 77,353
Yuma County Arizona 3.6 66,263 2,393 63,870
Klamath County Oregon 3.5 22,620 803 21,817
Hidalgo County Texas 3.5 271,593 9,631 261,962
Flathead County Montana 3.5 40,082 1,413 38,669
Matanuska-Susitna Borough Alaska 3.2 24,175 770 23,405
Clallam County Washington 3.0 26,587 804 25,783
Pima County Arizona 3.0 403,350 11,952 391,398
Clark County Nevada 2.7 869,950 23,832 846,118
Humboldt County California 2.7 55,547 1,509 54,038
Maui County Hawaii 2.3 76,056 1,763 74,293
Aroostook County Maine 1.8 28,944 517 28,427
Chaves County New Mexico 1.7 24,326 406 23,920
Hawaii County Hawaii 1.6 75,731 1,246 74,485
Fairbanks North Star Borough Alaska 1.6 50,194 792 49,402
Honolulu County Hawaii 1.1 466,476 5,052 461,424

Source: Governing calculations using 2011 Census American Community Suvery 1-year estimates