The African Union (AU), established in 1999, is dedicated to the promotion of socio-economic integration of the continent. The AU evolved from the Organization of African Unity (OAU), established in 1963. The African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, adopted by the OAU in 1981, established the African Commission on Human and People’s Rights. The African Court of Justice was established in 2004.

• Human Rights Law in Africa (KQC572 .A47 H86)
• Evans & Murray, Documents of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights (KQC573 .A34 D62 2001)
• Nmehielle, The African Human Rights System: Its Laws, Practice, and Institutions (KQC572 .N58 2001)


The Organization of American States was founded in 1948, evolving from an earlier organization, established in 1890 as the International Union of American Republics. Members include countries in Central and South America, the Caribbean, and the United States (Cuba is excluded). The main aims are peace, security, and the promotion, through cooperative action, of economic, social and cultural development. In 1969, the member states signed the American Convention on Human Rights, which entered into force in 1978. This Convention set up a judicial institution called theInter-American Court of Human Rights to apply and interpret the Convention, and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) which monitors human rights issues in member states and refers cases to and litigates cases before the Inter-American Court.

Case Law, Primary Sources

• Series A, Judgements and Opinions = Serie A, Fallos y Opiniones (KDZ574 .A52 I58) (1982-)
• Series B, Pleadings, Oral Arguments, and Documents = Serie B, Memorias,Argumentos Orales y Documentos (KDZ574 .A52 I583) (1983-)
• Series C, Decisions and Judgements = Serie C, Resoluciones y Sentencias (KDZ574 .A52 I584) (1987-)
•  Cases Published by the Inter-American Commission 
•  Annual Report - Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (KDZ574 .A58 I56)
• Annual Report of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights to the General Assembly (KDZ574.A58 I58) 
•  Inter-American System Instruments

Selected Treatises

• Human Rights: the Inter-American System (K3238 .A1 H85)
• Davidson, The Inter-American Human Rights System (KDZ578 .I5 D38 1997)
• MacKay, A Guide to Indigenous Peoples' Rights in the Inter-American Human Rights System (KF8210 .C5 M33 2002)
• OAS, The Human Rights Situation of the Indigenous People in the Americas(KDZ578 .H86 2000)


The Council of Europe was founded in 1949 as an organization to promote unity and cooperation among the European nations. As its first major human rights activity, it established the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, (also known as the European Convention on Human Rights), which was signed by the member nations in 1950 and entered into force in 1953. The Convention created two bodies: theEuropean Commission of Human Rights (established in 1954) and theEuropean Court of Human Rights (ECHR) (established in 1959). Prior to 1999, all human rights complaints were subject to a preliminary review by the European Commission of Human Rights. The Commission would then attempt conciliation between the complainant and the respondent state. If conciliation was unsuccessful, the case could then be brought to the ECHR. Since 1999, the Commission’s role in human rights cases has ceased due to a restructuring of the process intended to expedite proceedings and strengthen the adjudicative function of the ECHR. It is important to note that the ECHR is subsidiary to the national courts of the Council's member nations.

Case Law

• HUDOC (case law of the European Court, European Commission, and Committee of Ministers)
• Collection of Decisions = Recueil de Decisions continued by Decisions and Reports = Decisions et Rapports (K3240.5 .E87) (Commission decisions)
• Publications of the European Court of Human Rights. Series A, Judgments and Decisions (KJC5132.A52 E88) continued by Recueil des Arréts et Décisions (KJC5132. A52 E881)
• Publications of the European Court of Human Rights. Series B, Pleadings, Oral Arguments, and Documents (KJC5132.A52 E882)
• European Human Rights Reports (K3236.2 .E97)
• International Law Reports (JX68 .I56)
• International Legal Materials (JX1 .I67) (HeinOnline) (Westlaw - ILM)
• LexisNexis - EUROPE;HRIGHT
• Westlaw - EHR-RPTS
• Yearbook of the European Convention on Human Rights (K3240.4 .Y43)

Indexes & Digests

• Digest of Case-Law Relating to the European Convention on Human Rights(1955-1967) (K3240.4 .E97)
• Digest of Strasbourg Case-Law Relating to the European Convention on Human Rights (KJC5132.A52 D54 1984)
• European Human Rights Case Locator 1960-2000 (KJC5138 .A47 M46 2000)
• Berger, Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights (KJC5132 .A52 B47 1989)
• Dutertre, Key Case-Law Extracts: European Court of Human Rights(KJC5132 .A52 D87 2003)
• Gomien, Judgments of the European Court of Human Rights: Reference Charts (KJC5138. A4 G65 1995)
• Kempes, A Systematic Guide to the Case-law of the European Court of Human Rights (KJC5132. A52 K45)
• Yearbook of the European Convention on Human Rights (K3240.4 .Y43)

Selected Treatises
• Alston, et al, The EU and Human Rights (KJE5132 .E8 1999)
• Barkhuysen, The Execution of Strasbourg and Geneva Human Rights Decisions in the National Legal Order (KKM2460 .E98 1999)
• Clements, European Human Rights: Taking a Case Under the Convention(KJC5138 .C59 1999)
• Dijk, Theory and Practice of the European Convention on Human Rights(KJC5132 .D55 1990)
• Human Rights in Europe: Commentary on the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (KJE5132 .A432 H86 2010)
• Janis, European Human Rights Law (KJC5132 .J36 1990)
• Leach, Taking a Case to the European Court of Human Rights (KJC5138 .L43 2005)
• MacDonald, et al, The European System for the Protection of Human Rights(KJC5132 .E87 1993)
• Merrills, The Development of International Law by the European Court of Human Rights (KJC5138 .M47 1993)
• Reid, A Practitioner's Guide to the European Convention on Human Rights(KJC5132 .R44 2004)
• Zwart, The Admissibility of Human Rights Petitions: the Case Law of the European Commission of Human Rights and the Human Rights Committee(KJC5132 .Z88 1994)